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White Papers

White Papers

Our white papers are written by industry expert authors with extensive experience in the telecommunications and networking industry. These papers examine specific technical problems or topics in detail, providing technical solutions as well as valuable context and relevant background information.

Cloud Control Plane Simplifies Network Slicing for Edge Transport (1.35 MB )

Operator Strategies for 5G Transport: 2019 Heavy Reading Survey (492 KB)
Operators have aggressive timelines for launching 5G networks. This Heavy Reading white paper, based on an in-depth multi-sponsored global survey, provides the industry’s most in-depth look at the current state and future trajectory of 5G transport (or Xhaul) based on operator’s views and plans. Read More... (492 KB)

Dynamic high connectivity mesh networks with flexible grid ROADMs and 400G+ coherent transceivers (372 KB)
Increased demands are straining optical networks, but moving to higher date rate transceivers is not the only answer. This report, authored by Heidi Adams and Timothy Munks at IHS Markit, looks at how CDC ROADMs incorporating flexible grid WSS and 400G+ multi-rate coherent transceivers will be used to transition from manual, fixed grid, statically provisioned networks to autonomous control, flexible grid, and dynamically provisioned functionality. Read More... (372 KB)

Transporting 5G from Vision to Reality (1.02 MB )
As the race to deploy 5G gathers speed, the reality of building out new and different network architectures presents a variety of complex issues for service providers to address. Foremost among these challenges is the development of a robust optical transport network to support 5G radio access at the edge, creating the solid foundation that will enable service providers to deliver new profitable services. Read More... (1.02 MB )

Reaching for Shannon’s Limit (2.28 MB )
Pursuing higher transmission capacity with error-free performance is the holy grail of optical transport. This white paper presents a deeper analysis of constellation technique that is more tolerant to fiber nonlinearity in the context of relevant use cases for improved optical design and performance. Read More... (2.28 MB )

Open Optical Transformation (1.42 MB )
Open optical networks present new challenges in terms of network design, multi-vendor control, business processes and operational solutions. Fujitsu believes the migration to open networking requires the service provider to reevaluate the manner in which networks are architected, deployed and operated. Read More... (1.42 MB )

New Transport Network Architectures for 5G RAN (1,005 KB)
Advanced operators are preparing for rapid deployment of 5G networks. This white paper, authored by Gabriel Brown at Heavy Reading, argues that 5G RAN transport and connectivity is more than a necessary cost. For network operators, it is an investment in critical assets that will generate unique advantages in the way customers experience, and interact with, services. It is an architecture for the long-term development of the 5G service offer. Read More... (1,005 KB)

Mobile Transport for 5G Networks (461 KB)
5G brings the promise of a range of new applications enabled by 10x higher wireless speeds, low latency, and ultra-reliable connectivity. To support these new applications in an efficient manner, the underlying mobile transport network infrastructure must evolve. In addition, new 5G radio technology and evolving radio network architectures will also drive new transport requirements. There are several emerging technologies and applications that are expected to play a key role in 5G mobile transport infrastructure. Read More... (461 KB)

Breaking the Optical Glass Ceiling (1.01 MB )
As we approach terabit optical networks, agile companies must address growing capacity demand in the most cost-efficient manner possible. This white paper, authored by Heidi Adams at IHS Markit, looks at key technologies for optical network evolution and presents a holistic approach that will increase wavelength capacity, improve resource utilization and optimize to customer applications. Read More... (1.01 MB )

An Open Path to Software-Driven Service on Demand (598 KB)
Cloud-ready communications technology promises automation, interoperability, increased flexibility and lower TCO. However, before realizing these benefits, operators must overcome numerous hurdles, including dependence on vendor-specific roadmaps; lengthy processes tied to traditional standards-developing organizations; and the overall challenges of migrating a network. This whitepaper explores how open architectures can address these challenges and more. Read More... (598 KB)

C-RAN Mobile Architecture Migration - Economic Benefits of Fujitsu’s Smart xHaul Solution (890 KB)
There is a plurality of mobile fronthaul deployment models that service providers may consider when deploying a C-RAN architecture. This paper, authored by Tim Doiron at ACG Research, analyzes the total cost of ownership (TCO) and compares the economics of P2P dark fiber versus Fujitsu’s Smart xHaul solution. Read More... (890 KB)

Evolving to an Open C-RAN Architecture for 5G (474 KB)
The next generation of mobile technology will place unprecedented demands on the efficiency, flexibility and scalability of the radio access network.  This white paper, authored by Sterling Perrin at Heavy Reading, provides an assessment of the emerging C-RAN architecture with a focus on the practical evolutionary path that will take mobile operators from distributed RANs of today to the virtualized and open cloud RANs of the future. Read More... (474 KB)

DCI-Optimized Technology Solutions: The Next Wave (531 KB)
Technology advances in optical transport and SDN/NFV are having a dramatic impact on data center interconnect (DCI) infrastructure. This paper will disclose how DCI applications are transitioning from "big, fat, dumb pipes" to become more conscious, flexible and programmable from both a software and hardware perspective. Read More... (531 KB)

Bringing Disaggregation to Transport Networks (793 KB)
Convergence—or aggregation—has been long been a trend in telecommunications networking equipment. Today, however, SDN and NFV are leading operators to rethink element convergence. In fact, these advances are opening up the benefits of disaggregation, even in transport networks. In this paper, Heavy Reading Senior Analyst Sterling Perrin outlines the drivers for disaggregation and explains why it makes sense. Read More... (793 KB)

Next-Generation ROADM Architectures and Benefits (520 KB)
ROADMs, since their commercial introduction in the early 2000s, have evolved through three generations. Today, the ROADM market is transitioning to a fourth generation characterized by the introduction of new functions: colorless, directionless, contentionless and flex spectrum. Automating end points of optical connections is a major focus of next-generation (NG) ROADM evolution. This paper provides an overview of NG ROADMs, discussing the primary drivers and benefits of NG ROADM networks for operators. The paper describes near-term and longer-term benefits, including the value of combining a flexible photonic layer with SDN. Read More... (520 KB)

Evaluating Fixed Wireless Data Transmission Options in the E-Band (182 KB)
E-band fixed-wireless technology is increasingly attractive to network operators and service providers seeking to address growing data traffic demand. Currently, there are several fixed wireless data transmission technologies in the E-band radio communication space; this paper evaluates some of the differences among them. Read More... (182 KB)

SDN for Utilities (908 KB)
One of the challenges for the utilities and energy sector is maintaining multidomain, multitechnology communications networks, whether privately owned or leased. With the emphasis of the Smart Grid on machine-to-machine communication and big data storage and analysis, a new approach is needed. This paper examines the potential of Software-Defined Networking (SDN)for utilities network management. Read More... (908 KB)

The Benefits of Cloud-RAN Architecture in Mobile Network Expansion (811 KB)
Operators seeking to expand their networks who forego fiber in favor of a wireless-based solution have several options available. This paper examines the Centralized-RAN, Cloud-RAN, or C-RAN architecture and discusses its capacity and coverage benefits in addition to its other business-related advantages. Read More... (811 KB)

CDC ROADM Applications and Cost Comparison (968 KB)
New ROADM architectures are generating interest and attention in the optical transport industry. While Colorless Directionless Contentionless ROADMs offer appealing technological benefits, the cost requires careful consideration. Read this paper for an insightful cost-benefit overview. Read More... (968 KB)

SDN and the Future of Service Provider Networks (1.66 MB )
The advent of Software-Defined Networking (SDN) offers major potential benefits for service providers and carriers. This paper explains what SDN is, provides an overview of the current state of play, and examines the goals and benefits of SDN in a business context. Read this paper to gain an understanding of how SDN can simplify the software needed to deliver services, improve network utilization, and shorten delivery times. Read More... (1.66 MB )

OTN for MSOs (990 KB)
OTN offers significant benefits for MSOs, who are facing increased demand for video bandwidth. This paper examines these benefits and also discusses the main types of network architecture for deploying an OTN transport network in an MSO context. Read More... (990 KB)

High-Capacity Indoor Wireless Solutions: Picocell or Femtocell? (3.60 MB )
This paper overviews high-capacity indoor wireless deployment considerations and evaluates the relative merits of the picocell or femtocell for this type of deployment scenario. Read More... (3.60 MB )

OTN for Regional Carrier Networks (823 KB)
This paper considers the question of whether or not OTN switching is a fit within the regional carrier space. The paper evaluates the benefits to these carriers of an OTN network versus an alternative network such as a SONET, packet network, or ROADM network. The paper provides several example network architectures that highlight various ways in which OTN switching can be utilized. Read More... (823 KB)

4G Femtocell Solutions for Stadium Environments (4.43 MB )
Football stadiums are extreme instances of traffic hotspots. This paper outlines the available long-, medium-, and short- term options for handling exponential growth in mobile communications traffic in these environments, both from the standpoint of capacity and QoS. Read More... (4.43 MB )

4G Femtocell Solutions for the Dense Metropolitan Environment (5.19 MB )
This paper provides an overview of potential interference issues and key considerations for deploying femtocells in a dense metropolitan setting. Topic areas include the physical configurations of buildings and optimal femtocell locations, common interference-causing scenarios, and detailed technical information about mitigating interference levels. Read More... (5.19 MB )

4G Femtocell for the Enterprise Environment (3.90 MB )
This paper explores the potential interference issues and discusses possible solutions when deploying femtocells in an enterprise setting. Topic areas include the physical configurations of buildings and optimal femtocell locations, common interference-causing scenarios, and detailed technical information about mitigating interference levels. Read More... (3.90 MB )

The EPON Advantage (1.11 MB )
This paper compares and contrasts EPON and GPON technologies from a technical and economic standpoint, and discusses which of these two alternatives is the desirable choice for delivering enterprise-quality Ethernet services. Read More... (1.11 MB )

The Path to 400G (1.41 MB )
400G is now the focus of research and development in high-speed photonics, even as 100G components continue to be improved and refined. Find out how emerging standards and technologies such as the Fujitsu Universal Transceiver are forming the basis for 400G transport. Read More... (1.41 MB )

Solving the Big Dilemma of Big Data (1.02 MB )
Networks are transmitting increasingly large data sets not only for scientific research and education, but also in industries such as healthcare. Ultimately, the trend of increasing data set size will continue to gain momentum, putting pressure on networks to keep pace. This paper examines the topic of “big data” and proposes a network architecture to meet its challenges without disrupting other traffic. Read More... (1.02 MB )

CD ROADM: Fact or Fiction? (Part 2—Flexibility at a Price) (515 KB)
This paper is the second in a two-part series that provides an overview of CD ROADM architectures and their network applications, benefits, and costs. Part Two examines the technologies required to implement a CD ROADM architecture and the costs compared to existing ROADM technology. Read More... (515 KB)

CD ROADM: Fact or Fiction? (Part 1—Applications) (700 KB)
Colorless Directionless ROADM (CD-ROADM) architectures are generating considerable interest in the optical transport industry. This paper is the first of a two-part series that provides an unbiased look at CD ROADM architectures and their network applications, benefits, and costs. Read More... (700 KB)

Beyond 100G (701 KB)
Now that 100G optical units are entering volume deployment, 400G is on the horizon. This white paper summarizes the progress and direction of efforts to develop and implement the next generation of high-speed optical network technology. Read More... (701 KB)

Enhancing RF Capacity via Over-the-Air Repeaters (4.46 MB )
It is a common misconception that Radio Frequency (RF) repeaters are not useful for improving cellular system capacity. However, repeaters offer significant capacity improvements on 2G+, 3G and 4G cellular systems. This paper provides detailed analysis of how to achieve these capacity improvements. Read More... (4.46 MB )

Backhaul 2.0: Not Just For Mobile Anymore (664 KB)
There’s no question that backhaul is getting a lot of attention from opportunity-hungry service providers. This paper explores much more than just cellular backhaul, providing a comprehensive primer on the backhaul needs of all kinds of transport services. Read More... (664 KB)

Soft-Decision FEC Benefits for 100G (447 KB)
Soft-Decision FEC is a third-generation encoding algorithm that enables longer distances and fewer regenerations on 100G optical networks. Until recently, the technology did not exist to allow implementation of SD-FEC on high-speed, 100G optical signals. Fujitsu is now leading the optical industry by introducing SD-FEC on the newest generation of 100G optical modules. Read More... (447 KB)

Enhancing Cell-Edge Performance with PDCCH ICIC (1.66 MB )
This paper examines the challenges of PDCCH cell-edge Signal-to-Noise and Interference Ratios (SINRs), and proposes various performance enhancements using the existing LTE standard. Read More... (1.66 MB )

OpEx Benefits of the Fujitsu Ethernet Tag Switching Implementation of Connection-Oriented Ethernet (578 KB)
This paper considers the surprising operational economics of MPLS-TP versus Ethernet Tag Switching. The paper presents the findings of a 2011 study that compared the operational expenses of a typical Connection-Oriented Ethernet (COE) network, implemented using Ethernet tag switching, versus a network implemented using MPLS-TP. The Ethernet tag switching implementation is shown to be 32% lower in cost over five years than the MPLS-TP implementation. Read More... (578 KB)

Communication Network Challenges and Solutions in the Utility Industry (7.40 MB )
Utilities are facing the challenge of modernizing their network infrastructures to enable more efficient communication and information flow. This paper examines this challenge and discusses the optimal approach to achieving it. Read More... (7.40 MB )

The Path to 100G (905 KB)
Service providers are expanding capacity to meet escalating requirements, but as optical transmission speeds increase, it becomes increasingly difficult to overcome impairments to performance. This paper examines ways to overcome these obstacles and create a path to 100G deployment. Read More... (905 KB)

Carrier Ethernet Essentials (2.72 MB )
Carrier Ethernet augments the familiar and ubiquitous Ethernet LAN technologies to build metro and wide-area networks. This paper provides a comprehensive introduction to this this group of technology standards, including a summary of the building blocks and attributes of Carrier Ethernet and the architectures, services and capabilities it enables. Read More... (2.72 MB )

Low-latency Networks for Storage Infrastructure (407 KB)
Storage-Area Networks handle high-volume, high-speed transactions, and demand ultra-low latency. This paper explains some common sources of latency and summarizes the available solutions. Read More... (407 KB)

Low-latency Networks for Trading Infrastructure (487 KB)
In the fast-paced world of high-frequency and algorithmic trading, it is essential to cut network latency to miniscule levels. This paper explains some common sources of latency and summarizes the available solutions. Read More... (487 KB)

Achieving Smooth Migration to a Next-Generation Backhaul Network (539 KB)
Packet ONPs offer a smooth transition path from legacy SONET to packet functionality, enabling service providers to reuse legacy networks to offer advanced data and maintain original TDM services. This paper explains how the key features of Packet ONPs make these platforms ideal for migrating to the next-generation backhaul network. Read More... (539 KB)

The Key Benefits of OTN Networks (848 KB)
This paper describes the Optical Transport Network (OTN) group of standards and explains how this technology is quickly evolving into switching and aggregation roles, functioning as a complementary technology to COE and packet optical networking. Read More... (848 KB)

The New Ethernet-Driven OTN (261 KB)
This paper details how emerging Ethernet transport requirements have shaped the evolution of new OTN capabilities from the 2001 OTN V1 to the 2010 OTN V3, and how these capabilities support existing and new applications. Read More... (261 KB)

Connection-Oriented Ethernet - On-Ramp Aggregation for Next-Generation Networks (178 KB)
The Department of Defense (DoD) Global Information Grid (GIG) is migrating from TDM- and ATM-based technologies to packet-based technologies to support network convergence. This paper describes how the DOD is relying on Connection-Oriented Ethernet (COE) to facilitate geographically distributed, protocol-simple, IP-based network architecture and a secure, manageable access and on-ramp infrastructure. Read More... (178 KB)

Moore’s Law and Energy and Operations Savings in the Evolution of Optical Transport Platforms (203 KB)
This white paper applies a broader definition of Moore’s Law to telecommunication products. It analyzes the network operations savings from energy, floor space, and maintenance, and proves that next-generation operating improvements can often justify new capital investments. Read More... (203 KB)

Unlocking Ethernet Access and Backhaul with the EoX Gateway (2.78 MB )
Ethernet has become the most popular interface to attach end users and access devices to the range of Ethernet and IP network services. For many applications, a service provider delivering these Ethernet attached services must deploy multiple access network technologies and deliver a varied set of handoff interfaces to service and transit networks that may be operated by different business entities. This paper describes how the EoX Gateway solves this problem by eliminating additional elements with a combination of rich transport and Ethernet service functions, presenting a flexible variety of handoffs to the full range of service and transit networks. Read More... (2.78 MB )

The Micro Packet ONP: Leveraging Today’s Optical Network for Next-Generation Ethernet Access (4.87 MB )
Micro Packet ONP platforms result from the integration of COE into “micro-MSPP” systems. These platforms allow service providers to leverage existing access networks to realize important benefits. This paper describes these benefits in the context of mobile backhaul, DSLAM backhaul, and Ethernet services access applications. Read More... (4.87 MB )

The Emerging Optical Control Plane (1.07 MB )
This paper assesses the optical control plane, including general control plane concepts such as call and connection control, network reference points and connection types. Key control plane applications are covered, along with the protocols used in the Fujitsu FLASHWAVE® products to support these applications. The paper concludes with a discussion of network applications. Read More... (1.07 MB )

4G Impacts to Mobile Backhaul (670 KB)
The introduction of 4G wireless places strains on mobile backhaul networks and the carriers who operate them. This paper considers various design models for mobile backhaul networks that support enhanced broadband connections. The paper considers the fundamental shift from TDM transport to packet transport and separates fact from fiction with regards to success in the mobile backhaul business. Read More... (670 KB)

Connection-Oriented Ethernet – Operational and Deployment Considerations (825 KB)
Connection-oriented Ethernet technology holds great promise. It creates, for the first time, a single metro aggregation and transport infrastructure for delivering next-generation services. This paper considers several existing and emerging technology choices for the deployment of connection-oriented Ethernet and discusses their implications for the metro infrastructure. Read More... (825 KB)

Connection-Oriented Ethernet – Completing the Ethernet Revolution (941 KB)
Ethernet enterprise services are forecasted to grow at a compound annual rate of over 25% per year. To satisfy these demands, service providers have deployed a wide variety of Ethernet technologies, depending upon the specific application. This paper provides a functional, contextual and technological overview of connection-oriented Ethernet. Read More... (941 KB)

Lightwave: Economic considerations drive choice of triple-play transport (429 KB)
This article considers the architectural approaches transport providers must consider when deploying high-speed residential video, data, voice and Internet services. Read More... (429 KB)

IEEE Communications Magazine: Designing Hybrid SONET and DWDM Networks (124 KB)
To take full advantage of SONET granularity and DWDM capacity, these technologies must be combined. This article provides guidelines on recognizing different types of hybrid networks and how to accomplish the design task by using existing design tools or procedures. Read More... (124 KB)

FLASHWAVE 9500 - The Definitive Packet Optical Networking Platform (265 KB)
Fujitsu is defining a new generation of optical networking equipment known as the Packet ONP. This new platform delivers manageable scalability through the modular integration of Ethernet, ROADM, and SONET transport technologies on a single addressable optical networking class element. Read More... (265 KB)

Packet Optical Networking Platforms - Delivering the Connected Experience (758 KB)
Service providers face several key dilemmas as they evolve their networks to deliver the new generation of high-bandwidth services. This paper introduces the solution: the Packet Optical Networking Platform (Packet ONP). Read More... (758 KB)

Failsafe Protection for Utility Critical Infrastructure (168 KB)
This paper describes how Multiservice Provisioning Platforms such as the Fujitsu FLASHWAVE 4100 and 4500 address the unique needs of Utility Critical Infrastructure networks by delivering protection from service failures. Read More... (168 KB)

Benefits of RPR for Utility Critical Infrastructure Networks (260 KB)
This paper considers the benefits of Resilient Packet Ring technology (RPR) to address rising demands on utility company networks. Read More... (260 KB)

Ethernet Service OAM: Overview, Applications, Deployment, and Issues (323 KB)
IAs the number of Ethernet service instances grows, service providers will require a robust set of management tools to maintain Ethernet service networks. The positive news is that IEEE 802.1, ITU SG 13, and the MEF have been working in close cooperation to develop complimentary standards for multidomain Ethernet Service OAM. Read More... (323 KB)

Optimizing Networks with Money Saving Features of the NETSMART 1500 Element Management System (341 KB)
In today’s competitive marketplace, carriers are focused on controlling costs and optimizing productivity. Addressing inefficiencies that can arise from managing large, complex networks offers an opportunity to improve financial health. Carriers willing to seize this opportunity need a tool that enables efficient network operation. Fujitsu provides this tool in the form of its powerful and scalable NETSMART® 1500 EMS. Read More... (341 KB)

A Survey and Economic Analysis of Metro High-Capacity Central Office Approaches (153 KB)
The focus of this paper is to address a type of next-generation SONET ADM (MSPP) that provides multiple ring termination, high-capacity STS and/or VT grooming, along with multiservice capability. It presents an analysis of the capital savings for different architectures and applications. Read More... (153 KB)

Fujitsu Powered Video on Demand Solutions (436 KB)
This paper describes and characterizes the various Video on Demand (VOD) services and the architectures that can support them. It also provides an overview of the Fujitsu solution delivering these services cost-effectively and with faster service delivery. Read More... (436 KB)