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Innovative Manufacturing and Engineering

FSTJ 2007-1 Cover Image

2007-1 (Vol.43, No.1)

Fujitsu has been promoting total innovative manufacturing and engineering based on the customer focus. This special issue describes the innovative manufacturing activities that Fujitsu has been conducting in accordance with the Toyota Production System. It also describes the development of production technologies and IT tools that support powerful manufacturing and some examples of products that have resulted from these activities.

2007-1 (Vol.43, No.1) Contents

1. Preface (27 KB)
Fujitsu is a leading worldwide provider of customer-focused Information and Communication Technology (ICT) solutions that include servers, network devices, personal computers, mobile phones, and LSI devices. Fujitsu will continue its steadfast efforts toward achieving manufacturing and engineering process innovation and providing valuable products and services that help our customers in their business. ---[Toshihiko Ono, Corporate Senior Executive Vice President and Representative Director]
2. Fujitsu's Innovation in Manufacturing and Engineering (114 KB)
Since 2003, Fujitsu has been pursuing innovation in manufacturing based on its strengths in value-added manufacturing, an objective of which has been to raise the skill level of all employees. Our manufacturing environment has been undergoing great changes, with the relocation of production to Southeast Asia and China and less value being added internally due to more unit purchasing stemming from fractionization and increasing openness of technology. Based on an analysis of these changes, this paper outlines Fujitsu's commitment to innovation in manufacturing and engineering with the focus on improving quality, cost, and delivery (QCD) for servers, networks, personal computers, and mobile phones in the processes from development to manufacturing. Going into more detail, it describes our activities for reducing total costs and increasing competitiveness through innovation in manufacturing, originating in the plant and extending upstream to the supply chain and development. ---[Yuichi Sakai, Akihiko Miyazawa]

Innovative Manufacturing Focused on Work Front

3. Introduction of Toyota Production System to Promote Innovative Manufacturing (65 KB)
Until recently, Fujitsu employed various strategies to improve productivity and efficiency at its plants and business units. In 2003, however, we introduced the Toyota Production System (TPS) throughout the company to promote innovative manufacturing. This system is intended to achieve company-wide innovation not only at the plant level, but also for product delivery processes from the sales sections to the customers and for processes upstream of design and development. The system is still under construction, and we are now addressing various problems posed at each plant and business unit. This system is also intended to bring innovation to the processes performed between the plants, suppliers, and customers by linking with upstream development sections. This paper examines the progress of introducing TPS, using its introduction at some of our Information and Communication Technology product plants as examples. ---[Yuichi Sakai, Toshihiko Sugano, Tomohiko Maeda]
4. Innovative Manufacturing Activities in Fujitsu Group Plants (173 KB)
Fujitsu initiated innovative manufacturing activities company-wide in 2003, and is now promoting innovative activities at each plant under the guidance of a consultant for the Toyota Production System (TPS). This paper describes the innovative manufacturing activities undertaken at Fujitsu Component Limited (FCL), and then introduces Fujitsu IT Products Limited (FJIT) and the Fujitsu Nasu Plant (mobile system manufacturing), which are promoting innovative activities that began in April 2004 at their facilities under TPS consultant guidance. Finally, this paper examines related activities under way at Shimane Fujitsu Limited (SFJ), which has received guidance from a TPS consultant since April 2005. ---[Toshihiko Sugano, Tomohiko Maeda]

Manufacturing Technologies for Strong Production Abilities

5. Assembly Technology for High-Performance PCBAs (217 KB)
Servers and other network equipment contain high-performance printed circuit board assemblies (PCBAs). Some PCBAs, for example, PCBAs that mount CPUs, are very large and densely populated with leading-edge electronic packages and components. These PCBAs therefore require a more efficient and precise assembly technology to manufacture than ordinary PCBAs. The behavior of these packages and components during assembly must be thoroughly understood in advance so suitable measures can be taken to protect them from damage. This paper describes an assembly technology for this type of large-scale PCBAs that are processed by reflow soldering. It also describes a technology for attaching thermal interface materials that thermally couple devices to their heatsinks. ---[Osamu Higashi, Ken-ichiro Tsubone]
6. New Technology for High-Density LSI Mounting in Consumer Products (184 KB)
The ongoing trend toward downsizing and the growing sophistication of electronic devices require increasingly higher LSI mounting densities. Flip-chip technology is used to mount LSIs without using wire and thus enables higher mounting densities than conventional mounting technology, which uses Au wire bonding. Fujitsu has developed a new high-density flip-chip mounting technology for use in consumer products to reduce size and improve performance. This paper describes the bump method, assembly process, reliability, and applications of this new technology. It also examines Fujitsu's efforts to develop an ultrasonic assembly technology that achieves high throughput and reduced cost. ---[Hidehiko Kira, Akira Takashima, Yukio Ozaki]
7. Assembly Technology Using Lead-free Solder (221 KB)
In the process of complying with the Restriction of the use of certain Hazardous Substances in electrical and electronic equipment (RoHS) Directive enforced on July 1, 2006, the major technical issue to be addressed regarding the six substances restricted by RoHS is replacing lead, which is used a variety of ways in said equipment. The replacement of lead, especially with regard to solder (the so-called basic material of electronic assembly), requires controlling the heat resistance of electronic components. Moreover, a means must be devised to maintain uniform temperature for each material and component at reflow soldering since commonly used tin-silver-copper (Sn-Ag-Cu) solder, if adopted, requires a higher soldering temperature than lead containing solder. Additionally, it is important to clarify the properties, quality, and reliability of any new, alternative solder materials. Fujitsu has been engaged in comprehensive engineering, such as developing basic lead-free solder materials, to apply lead-free solder to its products. This paper introduces Fujitsu's activities toward addressing the technical issues posed by lead-free soldering technology. ---[Tsuyoshi Yamamoto, Ken-ichiro Tsubone]
8. Low-Cost Micro-Assembly Machine (127 KB)
Recently, production demand in manufacturing industries has changed drastically from demand for high-mix, low-volume production to that for high-mix, variable-volume production. At Fujitsu, we are promoting innovative engineering through the effective use of existing equipment without the need for additional investments and by implementing the Toyota Production System. Two major themes of manufacturing in the future will be the creation of strong production systems that can adapt to market changes while holding down investment and eliminating waste and the development of equipment suitable for those changes. To assist in this area, Fujitsu now offers a low-cost, ergonomically designed micro-assembly machine that can be used in comprehensive applications ranging from small trials to mass-production. This machine has the high speed and accuracy of existing equipment and provides greater flexibility and economy during manufacturing and product changes. This paper describes this new machine. ---[Koichi Shimamura, Yasunori Sasaki, Masanao Fujii]
9. Elaborate Precision Machining Technologies for Creating High Added Value at Low Cost (269 KB)
IT equipment consists of many precisely-machined parts, for example, semiconductor devices. Mobile phones, IT terminals, and other communication devices are becoming more compact and sophisticated as the ubiquitous computing era unfolds. These next-generation devices require miniaturized, high-precision, and high-quality mechanical components. Fujitsu is developing basic machining technologies for producing high added value at low cost. This paper outlines the following machining technologies for precision-machined parts and future devices: ultra-precise lap machining, micro-laser machining, precision injection molding, and elaborate press forming. It also gives practical examples in product manufacturing to show how Fujitsu is improving these technologies. ---[Naohisa Matsushita, Yoshiaki Yanagida, Tohru Tsukahara]
10. Three-Dimensional Measurement Technologies for Advanced Manufacturing (280 KB)
Three-dimensional (3D) measurement is a very important elemental technology in manufacturing. Because of the increasingly fine structures of modern components, this technology must be extremely fast and accurate. At Fujitsu, because we manufacture semiconductors, hard disk drives, display elements, and micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) devices, 3D measurement technology that enables fast, accurate measurement of solid shapes in the sub-micron to sub-nanometer region has become essential. In this paper, we introduce examples of how triangulation and optical interferometry are used in the 3D measurement technologies that have been developed so far and then look at some future developments. First, we describe a high-speed solder bump-height measurement system that uses triangulation. Next, we describe technologies that use optical interferometry to measure the slider ABS and disk micro-waviness of magnetic disks and the light-guiding plates for display elements. Finally, we introduce a technology for measuring the dynamic behavior of MEMS devices. ---[Hiroyuki Tsukahara]

Development Innovation Starting from Upstream Design Stages

11. Integrated Design Environment to Support Innovation in Manufacturing (279 KB)
To quickly satisfy the requirements of production, assembly, testing, and maintenance in manufacturing and the market requirements for higher performance, miniaturization, and cost reduction, it is necessary to have an innovative design methodology that facilitates optimization of the entire development process and enables it to proceed without repetition. Fujitsu has developed an integrated design environment for the entire Fujitsu Group to promote innovation in product development and manufacturing. This environment incorporates EMAGINE, an integrated CAD environment for electrical design, which meets the above requirements by providing simulation tools for all design processes and facilitating DFM/DFT and the coordination of PCB design with structural design. This paper outlines EMAGINE, focusing on a system that supports innovation in manufacturing, and then describes its noise simulation and structural design environments. ---[Takao Yamaguchi, Tatsuo Koizumi, Akira Sakai]
12. Development Process Visualization and Project Management (158 KB)
The environment surrounding enterprises is complex and rapidly changing. To supply superior products at the optimum timing and achieve continuous evolution, enterprises must clearly visualize and manage complex product development processes by considering the quality, cost, speed, and environment. To address these needs, we have initiated two activities that focus on the level of process maturity based on Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). The first activity is for standardizing new development processes with low maturity to obtain a certification of environment friendliness. The second activity is for handling existing development processes with high maturity. In this paper, we describe these two activities and introduce project management tools that support project tasks such as progress management. ---[Yuichi Arita, Noriyasu Nakayama, Yutaka Awata]
13. Achieving Robust Designs through Quality Engineering: Taguchi Method (262 KB)
Development processes must be constantly reviewed to quickly provide superior products that meet the complex demands of the marketplace. Quality engineering (also known as the Taguchi Method) is a systematized methodology for technology development that is attracting much attention. Quality engineering focuses on the functionality (generic functions) of products and separates the components of systems into three function categories: signal factors, control factors, and error factors. Although quality engineering may be difficult to understand for engineers used to conventional methods, it should be actively promoted to change their mindset as well as that of the divisions to which they belong. This will help ensure innovation in manufacturing. This paper outlines efforts made to promote quality engineering and analytical tools such as WebSTAT and ParaNAVI that are used to support it. It also gives examples of its application in simulation, the development of process materials, and software evaluation. ---[Shuji Takeshita, Tetsuo Hosokawa]

Example Activities for Development Innovation

14. Fujitsu's DFX Application (211 KB)
Improvements in product design are conventionally made after the start of mass- production, followed by reductions in cost and lead-time. However, in light of the shorter product life-cycles and high-mix/low-volume production of recent years, it is increasingly important to carefully optimize productivity from the initial stages of mass-production. It is generally considered that design determines 80% of productivity. To optimize mass-production as early as possible, design and production engineers are asked to make collaborative efforts in productivity improvement from the beginning of development design. Specifically, assembly and test performance must be evaluated, and then the results must be reflected in the design. These activities are collectively called Design For Manufacturing and Test (DFX). Fujitsu has created DFX guidelines for the manufacturing conditions and production know-how in its factories and for building a structure for reviewing productivity at the development stage. This paper outlines DFX and describes some examples of how DFX has improved various products and increased productivity. ---[Yukio Sekiya, Hideaki Takahashi]
15. Thermal Management of Fujitsu's High-Performance Servers (308 KB)
With the continued increase in power dissipation and power density of high-performance microprocessors, as well as requirements for high-density packaging and lower device junction temperatures, improvements of electronic cooling technologies have been becoming strategically important in the challenge of advanced thermal solutions for achieving higher cooling efficiencies while meeting reliability, packaging, cost, and environmental requirements appropriate to various electronic equipments. This paper gives an overview of thermal design and cooling technology development for Fujitsu's high-performance servers, using the latest high-end UNIX server PRIMEPOWER 2500 as an example. The thermal management is outlined from viewpoints of the server cabinet, system board, and CPU package. It also discusses the challenges in cooling technology developments arising from thermal management of high-density and asymmetric CPU power dissipation, investigations of thermal interface and heat spreading materials, and enhancements of heatsink cooling capabilities. ---[Jie Wei]
16. Reducing TTM Development of Mobile Phones through Practical Simulation (270 KB)
Today's ubiquitous network society in which communication is possible anytime, anywhere, and with anyone is now witnessing wide-ranging technological development in the fields of PCs, mobile phone terminals, wireless LANs, IC cards, and security. Conversely, these markets have matured in Europe, the US, and Japan, and future growth is expected to be marginal at best and coupled with intensified competition among makers. To secure a dominant competitive position in such a market environment, Fujitsu must satisfy customer demands and must therefore discriminate the design and functions of products, while shortening product development cycles through quality, cost, and delivery (QCD) activities. Fujitsu has introduced a simulation-based approach to development and taken efforts to reduce the Time To Market (TTM) through upstream development that targets quality construction. This paper introduces a practical example of simulation in the development of mobile phones. ---[Atsushi Iwabuchi, Nobuyoshi Yamaoka, Shinya Yamaguchi]
17. Innovation in Software Development Process by Introducing Toyota Production System (110 KB)
Fujitsu Software Technologies (formerly Fujitsu Prime Software Technologies [PST]) has been conducting activities since 2003 to improve productivity using the Toyota Production System (TPS). An agile development process and a store management method were introduced to implement the basic concepts of TPS in the IT software field. We included the basic concepts of TPS (elimination of muda [waste], heijunka [leveled production], and jidoka [automatic detection of abnormal conditions]) and visual management in the agile development process and store management method as practical techniques. PST introduced this agile development process to its software development process and the store management method to support its maintenance process. As a result, PST achieved significant improvements in both processes and in its organizational climate. This paper introduces the TPS concepts employed in the agile development process, describes how heijunka is used in the store management method, and examines the effects of implementing agile development and store management at PST. ---[Koichi Furugaki, Tooru Takagi, Akinori Sakata, Daisuke Okayama]